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Allen, J.P., 2005, The Art of Medicine in Ancient Egypt, New Haven.
Andrews, C., 1994, Amulets of Ancient Egypt, London.
Barb, A. and Griffiths, J., 1960, Seth or Anubis? JWI, 22, p. 367-71.
Betz, H.D., 1992, The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells, 2nd edition, Chicago.
Bonner, C., 1946, Magical Amulets, HThR, 39, p. 25-54.
Capart, J., 1908, Une liste d’amulettes, ZÄS, 45, p. 14-21.
Carrier, C., 2009, Grande Livres Funéraires de l’Égypte Pharaonique, MELCHAT 1, Paris.
Darnell, J.C., 2004, The Enigmatic Netherworld Books of the Solar-Osirian Unity: Cryptographic Compositons in the Tombs of Tutankhamun, Ramesses VI and Ramesses IX, Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, 198, Fribourg.
Delatte, A. and Derchain, P., 1964, Les intailles magiques gréco-égyptiennes, Paris.
Dieleman, J. and Moyer, I., 2003, Miniaturisation and the Opening of the Mouth in a Greek Magical Text (PGM XII: 270-350), Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions, 3, p. 47-72.
Dieleman, J., 2005, Priests, Tongues, and Rites: The London-Leiden Magical Manuscripts and Translation in Egyptian Ritual (100-300 CE), Leiden.
Faulkner, R.O., 1937, The Bremner-Rhind Papyrus III, JEA, 23, p. 166-85.
Faulkner, R.O., 1969, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Oxford.
Faulkner, R.O., 1972, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, 1, Oxford.
Faulkner, R.O., 1985, in C. Andrews (ed.), The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, Austin.
Freeman, M., 2005, Ancient Egypt, London.
Gager, J.G., 1992, Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World, Oxford.
Gahlin, L., 2001, Egypt: Gods, Myths and Religion, London.
Gardiner, A., 1927, Egyptian Grammar, Oxford.
Gaudard, F., 2005, The Demotic Drama of Horus and Seth, PhD thesis, Chicago.
Grumach, I., 1970, On the History of a Coptic Figura Magica, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of Papyrology, p. 169-81.
Herbin, F.-R., 2008, Books of Breathing and Related Texts. Catalogue of the Book of the Dead and Other Religious Texts in the British Museum, IV, London.
Hornung, E., 1997, The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife (trans. D. Lorton), Ithaca.
Janowitz, N., 2001, Magic in the Ancient World: Pagans, Jews and Christians, London.
Kurth, D., 2008, Einführung ins Ptolemäische: Eine Grammatik mit Zeichenliste und Übungsstücken, 1, Hützel.
Lichtheim, M., 1976, Ancient Egyptian Literature, 2, The New Kingdom, Berkeley.
Meeks, D., 2006, Mythes et Légendes du Delta d’après le papyrus Brooklyn 47.218.84, Cairo.
Marestaing, P., 1913, Les écritures égyptiennes et l’antiquitié classique, Paris.
Michel, S., 2001, Die Magischen Gemmen im Britischen Museum, London.
Petrie, F., 1914, Amulets, London.
Pinch, G., 1994, Magic in Ancient Egypt, Austin.
Quack, J.F., 2006a, Ein Neuer Zeuge für den Text zum Neunköpfigen Bes (P. Carlsberg 475), in K. Ryholt (ed.), The Carlsberg Papyri, 7, Hieratic Texts from the Collection, Copenhagen, p. 53-64.
Quack, J.F., 2006b, A Black Cat from the Right and a Scarab on Your Head: New Sources for Ancient Egyptian Divination, in K. Szpakowska (ed.), Through a Glass Darkly: Magic, Dreams and Prophecy in Ancient Egypt, p. 175-88.
Sauneron, S., 1970, Le Papyrus Magique Illustré de Brooklyn, Oxford.
Sbordone, F., 1946, Hori Apollinis Hieroglyphica: Saggio introduttivo edizione critica del testo e commento, Naples.
Schwartz, J., 1981, Papyri Magicae Graecae und Magische Gemmen, in M.J. Vermaseren (ed.), Die Orientalischen Religionen im Römerreich, p. 485-509.
Sijpesteijn, P., 1976, Amulett gegen Skorpionsstich, ZPE, 22, p. 108.
Smith, J.Z., 2001, Trading Places, in M.W. Meyer and P.A. Mirecki (eds.), Ancient Magic and Ritual Power, Leiden p. 13-27.
Smith, M., 1979, Relations between Magical Papyri and Magical Gems, Actes du XVe Congrès International de Papyrologie, p. 129-36.
Taylor, J., 2004, Death, the Afterlife, and Other Last Things. Egypt: Earlier Period, in Johnston, S.I. (ed.), Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide, Cambridge, MA, p. 471-75.
Van Der Horst, P.W., 1987, Chaeremon: Egyptian Priest and Stoic Philosopher. The fragments collected and translated with explanatory notes, Leiden.
Wilkinson, R.H., 1994, Symbol and Magic in Egyptian Art, London.
Wilkinson, R.H., 2003, The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, London.
Zazoff, P., 1983, Die Antiken Gemmen, Handbuch der Archäologie, Munich.
For a general overview of the magical papyri see further the introductions in Betz, 1992, p. xli-liii and p. lv-lviii for the Greek and Demotic papyri respectively. We should not necessarily equate Greek texts with products of Greek individuals; Egyptian priests were capable of writing in both scripts. Papyri solely or mostly written in Greek are cited as PGM; likewise documents written solely or mostly in Demotic Egyptian are cited as PDM; see Dieleman, 2005, p. 47-144.
For an introduction to the late antique magical gems see Zazoff, 1983, p. 349-62. For the contemporary nature of both the gems and the papyri see Smith, 1979, p. 132.
All dates hereafter are BCE, unless otherwise noted.
Janowitz, 2001, p. 44-45. For previous discussions pertaining to the relationship between the gems and the papyri see: Bonner, 1946, p. 48-50; Smith, 1979, passim; Schwartz, 1981, passim.
I accept Michel’s dates for the gems for the purposes of this study since I concentrate on the gem’s iconographic content.
For an overview of gems throughout antiquity see Zazoff, 1983, passim and, for a standard collection of Egyptian amulets, see Petrie, 1914, passim.
Petrie, 1914, p. 30-32, includes what most scholars call ‘gems’ in his book entitled ‘Amulets’; see plate xxi. Presumably he did not recognise a formal distinction between these artefacts.
Smith, 1979, p. 129-36.
Smith, 1979, p. 133.
See further Michel, 2001, p. 65-68, gems 99-103 and Michel, 2001, p. 327-32, gems 563-74.
For motifs absent from the gems compare the Eye of Horus (wedjat) found in several renditions on the magical papyri: see PGM V, 70-95 and PDM: lxi, 79-94. It is also attested in the Ptolemaic period as a design produced in the round like its Pharaonic predecessors: see Petrie 1914, number 138af. Other common Pharaonic symbols absent from the gems are the ‘djed’ pillar and the ‘tit’ or ‘buckle of Isis’, although Ptolemaic and Roman specimens are found as amulets; see Petrie, 1914, p. 15 and 23 respectively. Few specimens of the ‘ankh’ occur in Michel’s edition as independent forms, but are held by deities, a motif from monumental iconography; see gem 461 and also the symbol held by deities in gems 24 and 566. One final observation is that Pharaonic amulets mostly depict one deity while the gems commonly render an assembly. For Pharaonic amulets see Andrews, 1994, p. 14-35; Cf. gems 6, 12-17 in Michel, 2001, p. 4, 8-12.
Dieleman, 2005, p. 132-33 and 170-82; Dieleman, Moyer, 2003, p. 47-72; Smith, 2001, p. 13-27.
The cippus in figure 1 measures 20.3 x 13.4 x 5.0 cm while the amulet in figure 2 measures 3.8 x 2.3 x 1.5 cm; see Allen, 2005, p. 63-64.
Petrie, 1914, numbers 144a-f.
See Petrie, 1914, p. 23.
P. Berlin 29009: fragment a, x+9; translated by Quack in Szpakowska, 2006, p. 180.
Quack in Szpakowska, 2006, p. 180.
Andrews, 1994, p. 7; see also the MacGregor Papyrus in Capart, 1908.
Andrews, 1994, p. 106. Bonner, 1946, p. 53-54, also believes that the same types of amulet were used by the living and the deceased.
Bonner, 1946, p. 36.
See further Wilkinson, 2003, p. 197-99.
For Seth in the magical papyri see further Dieleman, 2005, p. 130-38.
While only this image clearly corresponds with Seth’s traditional iconography, there are several other images that are labelled as Seth, either directly or with known Sethian voces magicae; see further PGM XXXVI: 1-34 and 69-101. Other images derived from Seth’s traditional iconography are found in Coptic magical papyri; for a full discussion of this tradition see Grumach, 1970, p. 169-81.
The papyri contain many images and figures in addition to Seth. A comprehensive list of these images is: PGM II: 64-183; PGM III: 1-164, 187-262, 410-23; PGM V: 70-95, 304-69; PGM VII: 215-18, 300, 579-90, 925-39, 940-68; PGM VIII: 64-110; PGM IX: 1-14; PGM X: 24-35, 36-50; PGM XII: 376-96; PDM xii: 62-75, 135-46; PGM XXXV: 1-42; PGM XXXVI: 1-34, 35-68, 69-101, 102-33, 178-87, 231-55; PGM XXXIX: 1-21; PGM LVIII: 15-34; PDM lxi: 63-78, 79-94; PGM LXII: 76-106; PGM LXIV: 1-12; PGM LXVI: 1-11; PGM LXXVIII: 1-14; PGM CVI: 1-10; PGM CXIII: 1-4; PGM CXXIII: a-f; PGM CXXIV: 1-43. It is clear that images were an important aspect of the papyri and many other spells without illustrations in extant manuscripts prescribe images now lost. An interesting case is PGM II, which has three spells instructing the practitioner to draw the same image of the ‘Headless One’ a single copy of which was appended to the end of the spell collection. For spells that prescribe images missing from extant textual witnesses, see: PGM IV: 2006-125, 3255-74; PGM VII: 467-77; PGM XII: 96-106, 121-43, 144-52; PGM XIII: 343-646; PDM xiv: 395-427; PGM XXXVI: 264-74; PDM Supp: 101-16, 138-49, 162-68. Currently no detailed survey has been undertaken although Richard Gordon (personal communication) is working on such a project first mentioned in Gager, 1992, p. 35, endnote 58.
Michel, 2001, p. 31.
See further Barb and Griffith, 1960, p. 367-71. Barb suggests it is Anubis while Griffith advocates it is Seth.
See Michel, 2001, p. 29.
See for the CT spell Faulkner, 1972, p. 138; for the BD spells Faulkner, 1985, p. 60-61 and p. 101-102 respectively; for the Contendings see Lichtheim, 1976, p. 216; for Papyrus Bremner-Rhind see Faulkner, 1937, p. 168-69; for the Demotic Drama of Horus and Seth see further Gaudard, 2005, p. 487.
See gems 24, 566-67, 568-70 and 577 in Michel, 2001, p. 15, 329, 320 and 333 respectively.
Michel, 2001, p. 26; see PDM Supp. 101-30 for spells that portray Anubis as a warden of souls or spirits.
See further Zazoff, 1983, Table 112, nos. 4.54 and 5.54
I employ the translation by Faulkner, 1969, p. 113-14.
Translated by Faulkner, 1972, p. 69-72.
Quoted by Gaudard, 2005, p. 225-26, taken from Faulkner, 1969, p. 200.
Michel, 2001, p. 26.
Translated in Betz, 1992, p. 221.
For Sethian epithets see Dieleman, 2005, p. 136-38.
P. Berlin 8278c. 1. x+9; translated in Gaudard, 2005, p. 81.
PGM XII/PDM xii and PGM XIV/PDM xiv; see Dieleman, 2005, p. 285-94.
For an overview of Bes’ popularity see Wilkinson, 2003, p. 103.
For the text see Betz, 1992, p. 299.
For the text see Betz, 1992, p. 313 and for the function of the spell see Sijpesteijn, 1976, p. 108 (Table IIIb).
See Gems 342 and 343 and PDM xiv: 594-620; PGM XXVIII, a-c; and PGM CXII.
For these epithets see Dieleman, 2005, p. 135-38.
For a discussion of the attributes and invocations of Seth in the papyri see Dieleman, 2005, p. 130-38.
Grumach, 1970, p. 170-71.
For an overview of the uterus motif see further Michel, 2001, p. 220.
Gardiner, 1927, p. 517 sign U16; it is used as a determinative in the words ‘sledge’, ‘copper’ and ‘wonder’.
Cf gems: 353-55, 358-78 in Michel, 2001, p. 223-38.
Michel, 2001, p. 240.
See Smith, 1979, passim.
See below the case of the Nine-headed Bes iconography, instructions for which can be found in the Brooklyn Illustrated Magical Papyrus, published by Sauneron, 1970, and a papyrus found among texts from the Tebtunis temple library, published by Quack in Ryholt, 2006, p. 53-64. There is also another image preserved in the Tebtunis collection soon to be published (Kim Ryholt: personal communication).
Allen, 2005, p. 64.
See further Jane Draycott’s discussion of these cippi in the previous chapter of this volume.
See Gahlin, 2001, p. 203.
Gahlin, 2001, p. 75. See the discussion below for the scorpion image in the papyri.
Michel, 2001, p. 218. For the hieroglyph see Kurth, 2008, p. 134.
See Hornung, 1999, fig. 34. Hornung's work only contains images of the New Kingdom books for the afterlife. One may now combine these images (for most of these sources) with the text in Carrier, 2009.
Hornung, 1999, p. 30.
See further Herbin, 2008, plates 42-43 (P. BM EA 10283); 44-45 (P. BM EA 10303); 74-75 (P. BM EA 10282) and 143-44 (P. BM EA 10114).
See Meeks, 2006, p. 173-75.
Quack in Szpakowska, 2006, p. 180.
Darnell, 2004, p. 387-90 and pl. 29; for the Abrasax gems see further Michel, 2001, p. 115-48, gems 181-242.
Taylor in Johnston, 2004, p. 474.
Taylor in Johnston, 2004, p. 474.
Taylor in Johnston, 2004, p. 474.
Taylor in Johnston, 2004, p. 474.
Dieleman, 2005, p. 82.
Dieleman, 2005, p. 84-85.
Quack in Ryholt, 2006, p. 60 notes the similarity between these images and the gems in Michel’s edition. I would like to express my gratitude to Kim Ryholt for informing me of the affinities between these ‘Pantheistic’ gems and the Brooklyn and Copenhagen papyri.
For an earlier image of the papyrus see Pinch, 1994, p. 37. Quack in Ryholt, 2006, p. 60 provides details of publications in which our papyrus appears.
For the Brooklyn papyrus, see Sauneron, 1970; for the British Museum example, see Pinch, 1994, p. 37. For the text recently published among other papyri from Tebtunis see Quack in Ryholt, 2006, p. 53-64. Quack questions the provenance of this text and so we remain uncertain as to whether or not the papyrus definitely came from the temple library at Tebtunis: see Quack in Ryholt, 2006, p. 53. For PGM XII: 121-43, see Betz, 1992, p. 157-58. I thank Kim Ryholt (personnal communication) for alterning me to the image on the papyrus from Tebtunis that is soon to be published.
Sauneron, 1970, p. 5. For a palaeographical and linguistic investigation of the papyrus see p. 3-5.
Quack in Ryholt, 2006, p. 54.
Michel, 2001, p. 101 and p. 107.
Gems 160-69; see Michel, 2001, p. 101-107.
Kotansky in Betz, 1992, p. 158, footnote 38.
Dieleman, 2005, passim.
Dieleman, 2005, p. 48 n. 3.
In addition to those cited in this footnote below, Michel notes the possible presence of hieroglyphs on gems: 8, 9, 13, 15, 20, 38, 51, 102, 104, 135, 143, 159, 169-70, 172, 274, 345, 360, 366, 375-76, 405, 407, 523, 564, 604-608. During the course of researching this paper, I have observed further cases, some obvious and others less definite. I present these below in a format whereby ‘G1 = K200, 45’ means: ‘Michel, 2001, Gem 1 resembles Kurth, 2008, p. 200, sign number 45’. The ‘=’ sign indicates a match between a gem image and the hieroglyphic sign while the ‘≈’ indicates reasonable similarity between a gem image and a hieroglyph. Some gem images may have one element that matches with known hieroglyphics while others have multiple correspondences indicated by multiple entries for a single gem. My list is as follows: G3 ≈ K142, 80f; G6 ≈ K145, 92-93; G7 ≈ K248, 27; G9 ≈ K285, 39, = K283, 21, = K298, 1, ≈ K247, 20-21; G10 = K283, 21; G13 ≈ K145, 92-93, = K298, 6; G14 ≈ K144, 89e, ≈ K143, 86; G16 = K129, 9aa, ≈ K145, 92-93; G17 ≈ K136, 46, = K246, 11; G19 = K247, 17; G20 = K247, 12, ≈ K248, 30; G21 ≈ K248, 25; G40 ≈ K140, 71d; G44 = K140, 72-72a, ≈ K282, 3; G51 = K344, 77 or 87, = K204, 95; G99 = K299, note 22; G102 = K344, 77, ≈ K252, 71 or K253, 76, ≈ K286, 54-55, = K202, 78-79, = K298, 1; G105 = K129, 9aa; G116 ≈ K140, 71a; G123 ≈ K356, 7 or 9; ≈ K285, 39, = K205, 114; G143 ≈ K205, 11-12a; G144 ≈ K142, 80e; G145 = K356, 7; G146 = K205, 114; G149-55 ≈ K204, 98a; G273 ≈ K140, 71b; G345 ≈ K284, 29 or ≈ K135, 33 or maybe ≈ K298, 14; G358 ≈ K285, 37a; G377 = K406, 16; G424 = K276, 5; G564 = K198, 14.
See the description of this group in Michel, 2001, p. 255.
See Gardiner, 1927, p. 470.
See for both forms Kurth, 2008, I, p. 251 number 64 and p. 252 number 67a.
See Kurth, 2008, I, p. 251 for all the meanings of the symbol.
Darnell, 2004, p. 2.
Van der Horst, 1987, p. 73. For Horapollo see Sbordone, 1946, p. 81-82 and for Egyptian writing in Greek and Latin literature see Marestaing, 1913, passim.
Dieleman, 2005, p. 285-94.
See the conclusions drawn by Dieleman on the period of transmission of Egyptian ritual practices in the magical papyri; Dieleman, 2005, p. 293-94.Haut de page